“Were you there for the first one?” people may well ask in years to come, when the Unplugged Conference has become a regular feature on the ELT conference scene, perhaps even the go-to event of the calendar.
Even before I’d touched down in the city where I trained as a teacher and spent the early years of my career, I had a sense that we might be in for something special. Organised by the IATEFL Teacher Development Special Interest Group (TDSIG) and sponsored and hosted by OxfordTEFL, we would start by observing a lesson using real learners of English from the local community, led by Scott Thornbury and Luke Meddings, authors of the award-winning Teaching Unplugged. It would be a rare chance to see Scott and Luke put their theory into practice. We’d then have the chance to discuss the class with Scott, Luke and the learners themselves before an afternoon of small-group discussion organised around the principles of Open Space Technology. For those unfamiliar with Open Space (I admit that I was), it is an approach to organising events and meetings governed by four guiding principles and one law. The principles are:
1. Whoever comes is [sic] the right people.
2. Whenever it starts is the right time.
3. Whatever happens is the only thing that could have.
4. When it’s over, it’s over.
And the “Law of Two Feet” states: “If at any time during our time together you find yourself in any situation where you are neither learning nor contributing, use your two feet, go someplace else.”
(For more on Open Space, get over to Scott Thornbury’s A-Z of ELT for a great post.)
During my CELTA course, Scott came in to do a session on what he was then calling Dogme (Teaching Unplugged seems to be the preferred term now, but I’ve used them interchangeably in this blog post). The session stuck with me for two reasons: firstly because of a seemingly far-fetched anecdote that Scott told at the start of the session (that I’ve never forgotten but also never completely believed) about a teacher in Papua New Guinea who was forced to embrace materials-free teaching when the pack horse carrying all of the text books to the remote village where he was working fell into a ravine (or was it a river? Scott, please feel free to correct the details in my summary there; it’s been a long time since I heard the story!). To my chagrin (I should be more trusting), I’ve since learnt that the story is completely true. Secondly, I used the activity that Scott showed us in that session with many classes afterwards (it was based entirely around the contents of your learners’ pockets, and it never failed).
Looking back on it now, only two weeks into my teacher training and suffering from the input overload, lack of sleep, and adrenaline highs-and-lows of the CELTA, I think I made a critical mistake in my understanding of Dogme, a mistake that perhaps some of us continue to make: that it is all about what the teacher shouldn’t be doing. I came out of Scott’s CELTA session thinking that Dogme was basically just about not using coursebooks in your teaching. And I’ve since heard criticism leveled at unplugged teaching for the (mistaken) belief that it prohibits the use of technology as part of the learning process. But the Teaching Unplugged “guidelines” (for want of a better word) are not a list of what you shouldn’t be doing as a teacher. Rather, they are a set of useful principles based on the belief that the learner should be at the centre of what happens in the classroom: that lessons should be conversation-driven; that teaching should be “materials-light” (not, you’ll notice, “materials-free”); that lessons should focus on emergent language; and, as Luke put it on the day, that we should draw on “learners’ lives and learners’ language”.
When I later became a publisher, I followed the growing popularity of the Teaching Unplugged movement with interest (a lot of publishers do …). You might assume that ELT publishers consider unplugged teaching a threat to their business, but I didn’t see it like that. For me, the principles behind Dogme were a counterweight to my day job, a way of maintaining a balanced perspective. I could never be completely uncritical of Dogme, and I’m still not. But I couldn’t doubt its importance or deny that a lot of what it stands for appealed to me when I was teaching and still appeals to me now.
None of which is to say that I didn’t feel a *tiny* bit of trepidation about attending this conference. I’ve worked in publishing for longer than I taught. For a time I was in charge of a very well-known and successful adult general English course. I’ve written an ESP course book. My business card reads “Publishing Manager”. How would I be received by the other delegates? Would I be persona non grata? Would anyone else from the publishing industry attend so that we would have strength in numbers?
Of course none of the above turned out to be true (apart from the final point: there was no representation from ELT publishers — a shame, I think). The organisers and delegates welcomed me and showed interest in my perspective. And the more I reflected on it, the more I realised that I would have no qualms talking to a group of unplugged teaching advocates about what I do for a living. Apart from the fact that English360 isn’t a publisher (we’re a tool for teachers, a way for them to use and create learning content), I believe that what we do at English360 is very much aligned with certain elements of the unplugged teaching philosophy, especially in our “bottom-up” rather than “top-down” approach to materials development. At the root of what we do at English360 is the belief that learners and teachers know better than we do what they need most at this particular time, in this particular place, with these particular people. We can’t plan for every context that a teacher will end up in, but we can give them a tool to help them be better prepared for it: a platform for dynamic, flexible, personalised and localised course creation, a way of reinventing (dare I say “unplugging”) the coursebook.
But back to the conference. Scott and Luke did their thing, with the class of 16 learners sitting in a semi-circle, and forty-odd teachers watching attentively. To the students’ credit (and Scott and Luke’s), the large audience didn’t seem to affect the class dynamic. I won’t go into detail here about the class itself and the subsequent discussion and plenary (I’m sure great summaries of both will appear on other blogs), but it was electrifying to have the learners present for the post-class discussion, to hear their thoughts on being taught “unplugged”, to listen to them talking about their experience as learners.
A pause for a quick sandwich and a beer and then it was back to OxfordTEFL for the afternoon sessions. In the spirit of Open Space, it was up to us as delegates to decide what we’d like to spend the rest of the day discussing. We limited ourselves to six questions, each of which we would attempt to answer in a ten-minute presentation at the end of the day. I chose (unsurprisingly) to join a group discussing the question of whether the use of published materials could be compatible with an unplugged approach.
Despite being a small group (Principle 1: “Whoever comes is the right people”), the conversation ran and ran. We all agreed that the use of published materials was not at odds with Teaching Unplugged as such (in fact, it was, for many people, a reality of it): it just required an understanding that in teaching, as in all things, everything must be in moderation, meaning moderation in the use of published materials but also in the application of Dogme principles. When we presented our ideas to the rest of the delegates, we argued for this moderate, “non-dogmatic” approach to Dogme, and for a kind of eclecticism in our choice of materials and approaches. There are good published materials and bad published materials, just as there are good unplugged lessons and bad unplugged lessons. The key for the teacher is to know what will work best in this this context, with these learners.
Despite Principle 4 (“When it’s over, it’s over”), the day was over at exactly the time it was supposed to be, thanks to the organisational skills of Duncan Foord and his team at OxfordTEFL and the TDSIG. There’s an all-too-rare feeling you get as a group when you know that you’ve been part of something special, a kind of collective glow that sadly fades in the subsequent days. It reminded me of my CELTA, in fact. As the post-conference meal turned into post-conference drinks, we said our goodbyes and promised to come back next year and repeat the experience. (As an aside, Lindsay Clandfield made the excellent suggestion of using the “observed-lesson-followed-by-Open-Space-workshops” format as the basis for a “plugged conference” which would examine the use of coursebooks and technology in the same critical way.)
For me this was a benchmark conference, for its format, its content, and its participants. I left feeling energised and keen to deepen my understanding of Dogme, as a teacher, a teacher trainer and (whisper it!) even as a publisher.
Don’t miss it next year!
Some photos of the event courtesy of Graham Stanley.
This would be neat for students of a certain ilk. Ask Philosophers posts a philosophical question every day and then has a philosopher give a short answer.
You could probably do some fun conversation and debate activities based on this resource.
Micah Baldwin wrote a wonderful mash-up of the classic frog and scorpion parable, and the post is a nice text that could be used in any BE class that would be interested in discussing the proposed Microsoft + Yahoo! merger.
For a small group class, you could work in some other parables as well, that you select from here. Include the original frog scorpion parable in your selection of parables. Then, for example:
1) distribute a different parable to each S or pair
2) have each S or pair read their parable; you help with vocab.
3) the pairs then relate their parable in their own words to the class as a whole
4) class briefly discusses the meaning of each, to arrive at the “moral of the story” (right hand column)
5) sequence the parable pairs so that the original frog and scorpion parable comes last
5) after the frog/scorpion pair relates their parable and it’s discussed, distribute the Microsoft/Yahoo parable to all Ss
6) Discuss: is the MS/Yahoo merger analogous to the original parable? What business lessons could be drawn from that parable, or any other?
7) For next class: have Ss think of a current business challenge/decision that they or their department or colleagues are making, and find a parable on the parable resource above that relates to the decision, and be prepared to tel the story / present the parable and relevance to the class
Depending on class size, level, and dynamic, it might go to two classes. Step 7 is critical IMHO.
Anyway, just an idea. I think I’m like most BE teachers: everything I read, I subconsciously make a lesson out of!
Every year the New York Times puts out the “Year in Ideas” list: a list of short articles about new trends and ideas for the year; this time there are 70 articles. They are both interesting enough and short enough that they would be appropriate for most levels, and there is enough variety of topics that personalization is possible.
Downside: you have to register. Worth it though.
Via TED I came across Gapminder Human Development Trends 2005, a cool resource for teaching a wide range of language to adults (maybe kids too). The interactive graphs show various economic, demographic, and health related data, nicely presented.
But what really rocks is the interactivity – you can move sliders to cover trends year by year, historical and projected, from 1970 – 2015 (a great example of this is at the end of section 1).
So this could be a really useful class resouce for BE teachers, for two reasons:
+ With the slider you can focus on a wide range of language – you could target a variety of tenses (pasts, futures, “what has happened since”), verbs of increase and decrease, adjectives/adverbs to communicate degree of change (“dropped sharply”), and all the target language BE teachers know and love (?) when it comes to helping students explain graphs.
+ The subject matter is the human condition in all its inequality. The regional comparisons of poverty trends 1970-2015 bring into focus the gains of Asia, the mixed record of Latin America, and the tragedy of Africa. Adding in some photos from Flickr to connect the graph numbers with real people, and some quality discussions could develop, as students will exchange feelings and ideas about the human condition that the data (partly) represents. (Caveat: We’ve probably all had students get upset during discussions like this -I know I have- so tailor it to your individual situation.)
For our web application build we’ve got a distributed team: Miami, Washington, Canada, and Venezuela. So I’m always on the lookout to acquire better virtual collaboration skills, and The Bumble Bee is a new resource I found after they wrote a manifesto in Seth Godin’s Change This (actually, I think Change This passed into new hands recently). I love Robin Good and Change This always has great content for BE teaching.
Anyway, the BB enters my aggregator every morning now, and today there’s a post that will make a great class or class activity on intonation and meaning. Off the cuff, I see one possible staging like this (read the post first for this to make sense):
1) a warmer discussion on company culture, or projects and team autonomy, etc.
2) whiteboard the sentence and talk about what it means for a bit without getting into the word stress issue
3) have individual Ss say it: T, group, or partner notes which word is stressed. You will probably need to contextualize the sentence with some scenario, so that it’s not artificial
4) do the “stressed word” vs “what that means” as a jumbled text activity – lots of good vocab should come out
5) go back to the notes on what word each Ss stressed – discuss
6) discuss if this whole thing is valid…what do the Ss think? In real life would a NS actually stress “do”? (seems to me infrequently). If the word “can’t” is stressed, does that reflect concern over “beliefs and values”… or “ability”? (seems to me the latter).
+ Option (regarding validity): if you work in a school, go around and record fellow teachers saying the sentence. Which word do they stress? Discuss.
Lots of different options here and I think lots of cool language could come out of this. Very Ss-centered as well – much discussion is about their personal beliefs, business or otherwise. You could do it with a fluency, vocab, or intonation work focus – I’d probably blend all three by digging up a few more intonation / word stress examples. And I think you could tweak this to make it successful at any level except beginner – higher elementary and up.
What do you think?